Patients rarely require drains after adrenal surgery; however, if the surgeon thinks it is necessary, an abdominal drain will be placed. Drains are more often required after open adrenalectomy than after laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Drains are relatively easy to take care of, and the output is recorded on a daily basis. Once the output decreases to a certain level, the drain will be removed. Removal of the drain is not particularly painful. It is more of a strange sensation. In general, the drain will be removed several days after surgery.
A drop (cold) or rise (heat) of temperature of the skin can cause hives in susceptible individuals. The source of the heat can be external or internal body heat. Since physical exertion can raise the core body temperature, exercise sometimes causes hives, known as cholinergic urticaria . The ability of (cold) temperature to cause histamine release can also be demonstrated by touching a patient’s skin with an ice cube (producing cold urticaria – see figure 1). Fatal, sudden fall of core temperature has been observed in patients with cold urticaria, diving into a cold stream or pool.
The release of a chemical called histamine under the skin is involved in causing hives (urticaria). Antihistamines block the action of the histamine. Most affected people have at least partial relief, and sometimes total relief, of their symptoms with antihistamines. The most commonly used antihistamines for hives are cetirizine , fexofenadine and loratadine . These do not usually cause drowsiness. Your doctor may advise doses which are higher than the usual recommended dose in order to control the rash. If the itch is making it difficult to sleep, sometimes an antihistamine which makes you sleepy can also be taken at night. Examples of antihistamines used in this way include chlorphenamine or hydroxyzine .