Glucosteroid comparison chart

Both treatments resulted in improvements in lung function that were sustained throughout the study. As compared with treatment with high-dose budesonide, treatment with low-dose budesonide plus theophylline resulted in greater improvements in forced vital capacity (P=) and forced expiratory volume in one second (P= ). There were significant and similar reductions in beta2-agonist use and the variability of peak expiratory flow, a correlate of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and the severity of asthma. Serum cortisol concentrations were significantly reduced in the group given high-dose budesonide (from a mean [+/-SE] of +/- microg per deciliter to +/- microg per deciliter, P=) but were unchanged in the other group. The median serum theophylline concentration was microg per milliliter (therapeutic range, 10 to 20) among those who received theophylline. Both treatments were well tolerated.

Lewis Sarett of Merck & Co. was the first to synthesize cortisone, using a 36-step process that started with deoxycholic acid, which was extracted from ox bile . [43] The low efficiency of converting deoxycholic acid into cortisone led to a cost of US $200 per gram. Russell Marker , at Syntex , discovered a much cheaper and more convenient starting material, diosgenin from wild Mexican yams . His conversion of diosgenin into progesterone by a four-step process now known as Marker degradation was an important step in mass production of all steroidal hormones, including cortisone and chemicals used in hormonal contraception . [44] In 1952, . Peterson and . Murray of Upjohn developed a process that used Rhizopus mold to oxidize progesterone into a compound that was readily converted to cortisone. [45] The ability to cheaply synthesize large quantities of cortisone from the diosgenin in yams resulted in a rapid drop in price to US $6 per gram, falling to $ per gram by 1980. Percy Julian's research also aided progress in the field. [46] The exact nature of cortisone's anti-inflammatory action remained a mystery for years after, however, until the leukocyte adhesion cascade and the role of phospholipase A2 in the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes was fully understood in the early 1980s.

Glucosteroid comparison chart

glucosteroid comparison chart

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