Unlike benzodiazepines, etifoxine appears to produce its anxiolytic effects by activating β2 and β3 subunit containing channels of the GABA A receptor complex (a different binding site than benzodiazepines), and by stimulating the production of GABA(A) active neurosteroids that act in conjunction with etifoxine's direct effects.  This difference in binding means that etifoxine can be used alongside benzodiazepines to potentiate their effects without competing for binding sites;  however, it also means that the effects of etifoxine are not reversed by the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil . 
Psychoneuroendocrinology publishes papers dealing with the interrelated disciplines of psychology , neurobiology , endocrinology , immunology , neurology , and psychiatry , with an emphasis on multidisciplinary studies aiming at integrating these disciplines in terms of either basic research or clinical implications. One of the main goals is to understand how a variety of psychobiological factors interact in the expression of the stress response as it relates to the development and/or maintenance of neuropsychiatric illnesses . The journal is international and comprises original research papers, reviews of an area of the literature, or at an appropriate stage in the development of the author's own work, commentaries in areas of current interest, short communications and book reviews. Although reviews, editorials and commentaries are usually by invitation, interested authors can contact one of the Co-Editors-in-Chief to discuss the suitability of topics for either category of manuscripts.
The lack of pineal disorders that involve hormone deficiency or hormone excess has been an obstacle to the investigation of putative roles for the gland. Such roles include the possibility that melatonin secretion is an important factor in the induction and maintenance of nocturnal sleep, as suggested by classical studies in night-shift workers. Relatively little is known about genetic variants that influence melatonin levels and the relationship of those variants to sleep disorders and other circadian pathologies. Nonetheless, melatonin administration has been associated with numerous and diverse effects, including immune responses, cellular changes, and protection against oxidative stress. Those observations stimulated research on the therapeutic potential of melatonin and its analogues , such that certain melatonin receptor agonists (., tasimelteon) have been approved for the treatment of certain sleep-related disorders.