Short-term palliative treatment of acute episodes or exacerbations and systemic complications of rheumatic disorders (., rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, acute gouty arthritis, posttraumatic osteoarthritis, synovitis of osteoarthritis, epicondylitis, acute nonspecific tenosynovitis, ankylosing spondylitis, Reiter syndrome † , rheumatic fever † [especially with carditis]) and collagen diseases (., acute rheumatic carditis, systemic lupus erythematosus, dematomyositis † [polymyositis], polyarteritis nodosa † , vasculitis † ) refractory to more conservative measures. a c d f
About two thirds of patients recover with corticosteroid therapy: the usual corticosteroid administered is prednisolone in Europe and prednisone in the USA; these differ by only one functional group and have the same clinical effect. The corticosteroid is initially administered in high dosage, typically 50 mg per day tapering down to zero over a six-month to one-year period. [ citation needed ] If the corticosteroid treatment is halted too quickly the disease may return. Other medications [ vague ] must be taken to counteract side effects of the steroid.
Budesonide has a systemic clearance of approximately L/min in 4-6 years old asthmatic children. Per kg body weight children have a clearance which is approximately 50% greater than in adults. The terminal half-life of budesonide after inhalation is approximately hours in asthmatic children. This is about the same as in healthy adults. In 4-6 years old asthmatic children, the systemic availability of budesonide following administration of Budesonide Nebuliser Suspension via a jet nebuliser (Pari LC Jet Plus® with Pari Master® compressor) is approximately 6% of the nominal dose and 26% of the dose delivered to the patients. The systemic availability in children is about half of that in healthy adults. The maximal plasma concentration, occurring approximately 20 min after start of nebulisation is approximately nmol/L in 4-6 years old asthmatic children after a 1 mg dose. The exposure (Cmax and AUC) of budesonide following administration of a single 1 mg dose by nebulisation to 4-6 year old children is comparable to that in healthy adults given the same delivered dose by the same nebuliser system.